Harappa Civilization
 Harappa, Harappa civilization

  Harappa was discovered in 1826. First Archaelogical survey of Harappa  was excavated in 1920 and 1921. Harappa is located in the central Punjab province of Pakistan on the bank of Ravi River. Harappa is one of the oldest civilizations of the world which is about 5000 years old. Harappa civilization is also known as Indus valley civilization. Harappa is the ruins of a vast capital city of the Indus Civilization, and is one of the best-known locations in Pakistan.  Harappa was central economic and social hub of all South Asia between 2600–1900 BCE. At the peak of Indus civilization Before 4500 years ago as central city Harappa covered about 385,000 square miles area of thousands cities and towns. Harappa civilization is the sister civilization of Mohenjo Daro. Current city of Harappa is built at the top of the ruins of the old city of Harappa.
Ruins of Harappa show that its civilization starts from 3800 BCE. Harappa name is recorded as Hari-Yupuya in “Rig Veda”. Harappa is the unspoiled reflection of the kind of planned thought which the Rig Veda highlighted. Like the other large cities Harappa‘s civilization started as a village settlement, progressively developing over the centuries to accommodate famous skill industries, world easily reached markets, and clean housing areas and memorial park. Boundaries of the ruins of Harappa are of three miles and city is split up into mounds. These mounds are labeled from A to G easily identifiable points by archeologists.  Height of the mounds identifies that how much that area was important in the city.  The highest mounds were the citadel mounds and were built on the east-west, north –south axis which was bordered by four city walls with a great entry gate on the western partition. Width of the gate was 2.8 meters and height was 3 to meters aside with room or look out posts at top. A grand space was specified for a market in from of gate for easy transportation. Economic resources of harappan people were agriculture, pastoralism,  fishing and hunting.
Common methods for goods transportation were Ox and cart and only one cart in or out at a time. There was a network of roads inside the gate for easy movement. There is another gate at 200 meters distance in the east of first one.  Outside of these both gates there were caravanserais for travellers. Harappa is one of the Indus civilization cities which served as gateway city.
Harappan civilization had a very good drain system which was consist of series of drains running along the streets which were connected to a large drain of the main street. Drains of household, bathrooms and latrines were connected to the main drain. These drains were completely covered but at some points had removable brick paving or dressed stone on top to fulfill the cleaning requirements. There were some sump pits at proper distance which used to collect the solid waste at bottoms. There was complete cleaning system to stop the blockage of these drains.
In Indus civilization small house as well as large buildings was used. Houses of the rural areas were built of mud bricks while buildings of the rural areas were made of mud bricks and of baked bricks. There were three main categories of buildings small houses, large houses and public buildings. People used single or double story houses. These houses had central courtyard around which the rooms were arranged. Interior of the houses was not visible from streets due to the outer walls. In Indus civilization walls of the houses had 70cm average thickness and average height of the ceiling was 3 meters. Doors were made of wood.
30 wells have been discovered in Harappa civilization and most of them looks private not public. Majority of Harappan people attain their water directly from river. Fresh water was supplied to some houses through drains so there were two types of drains in streets first for fresh water and second for used water.
On the bases of antiquity and significant architectural remaining harappan civilization is categories into 5 different periods.



  • Period 1  is 3800–2800 BCE( Ravi aspect phase).
  • Period 2  is 2800-2600 BCE(Kot Diji Phase).
  • Period 3  is 2600-1900 BCE (Mature Phase).
  • Period 4  is 1900-1800 BCE (Transitional to Late Harappa Phase).
  • Period 5  is 1800-1300 BCE (Localization phase Phase)

Ravi aspect

At this phase only small settlements with a collection of workshops were settled in Harappa. Evidences show that these were migrants whose were settled in Harappa.

Kot Diji Phase

Social, economic, and political ranking was started at this phase in Harappa. This phase is the beginning of literature, poetry and commerce. Weight system was also developed with cubical limestone weight.

Mature Phase

This phase was start of rules and laws and whole harappan community was controlled by merchants, landowners, and religious leaders. It was start of using Baked bricks in building construction.

Transitional to Late Harappa

At this phase Harappa started to lose it power and  people started to migrate outside Harappa because of shifting river patterns.

Late Harappa

It is the de-urbanization phase. There may be different reasons of de-urbanization such as catastrophic flood, disease, trade decline or Aryan invasion.


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Neelum Valley


Kaghan Valley



Hunza Valley



Swat


Islamabad


Lahore


Karachi


Mohenjo Daro


Northern Areas of Pakistan


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