Harappa CivilizationHarappa was discovered in 1826. First Archaelogical survey of Harappa was excavated in 1920 and 1921. Harappa is located in the central Punjab province of Pakistan on the bank of Ravi River. Harappa is one of the oldest civilizations of the world which is about 5000 years old. Harappa civilization is also known as Indus valley civilization. Harappa is the ruins of a vast capital city of the Indus Civilization, and is one of the best-known locations in Pakistan. Harappa was central economic and social hub of all South Asia between 2600–1900 BCE. At the peak of Indus civilization Before 4500 years ago as central city Harappa covered about 385,000 square miles area of thousands cities and towns. Harappa civilization is the sister civilization of Mohenjo Daro. Current city of Harappa is built at the top of the ruins of the old city of Harappa.
Harappan civilization had a very good drain system which was consist of series of drains running along the streets which were connected to a large drain of the main street. Drains of household, bathrooms and latrines were connected to the main drain. These drains were completely covered but at some points had removable brick paving or dressed stone on top to fulfill the cleaning requirements. There were some sump pits at proper distance which used to collect the solid waste at bottoms. There was complete cleaning system to stop the blockage of these drains.
In Indus civilization small house as well as large buildings was used. Houses of the rural areas were built of mud bricks while buildings of the rural areas were made of mud bricks and of baked bricks. There were three main categories of buildings small houses, large houses and public buildings. People used single or double story houses. These houses had central courtyard around which the rooms were arranged. Interior of the houses was not visible from streets due to the outer walls. In Indus civilization walls of the houses had 70cm average thickness and average height of the ceiling was 3 meters. Doors were made of wood.
On the bases of antiquity and significant architectural remaining harappan civilization is categories into 5 different periods.
- Period 1 is 3800–2800 BCE( Ravi aspect phase).
- Period 2 is 2800-2600 BCE(Kot Diji Phase).
- Period 3 is 2600-1900 BCE (Mature Phase).
- Period 4 is 1900-1800 BCE (Transitional to Late Harappa Phase).
- Period 5 is 1800-1300 BCE (Localization phase Phase)
Ravi aspectAt this phase only small settlements with a collection of workshops were settled in Harappa. Evidences show that these were migrants whose were settled in Harappa.
Kot Diji PhaseSocial, economic, and political ranking was started at this phase in Harappa. This phase is the beginning of literature, poetry and commerce. Weight system was also developed with cubical limestone weight.
This phase was start of rules and laws and whole harappan community was controlled by merchants, landowners, and religious leaders. It was start of using Baked bricks in building construction.
Transitional to Late HarappaAt this phase Harappa started to lose it power and people started to migrate outside Harappa because of shifting river patterns.